In preparation for our full dissertations which we will write in third year (next year), we were set the assignment of writing our dissertation proposals.
Our proposals were made up of an opening overview, a literature review in the middle, and a research plan to end the essay. It was definitely a tricky one to write, particularly the literature review as I had no idea what one even was up until this task. Before beginning the writing of the proposal, the first thing we had to choose a question or topic to write about. Although I had several ideas, I decided on the topic of subcultures after studying them in Constellation lectures in my first year of university with Cath Davies and knowing that I really enjoyed the subject and found it fascinating – after all, my topic had to be something I was interested by because I am going to be writing an entire book on it.
To help me settle on an exact topic or question which included the subject of subcultures, I filled in a planning form. Although there were five types of dissertation structures that I could choose from on the form, the main two which interested me were the 8000 to 10,000 word thesis, or the 6000 word creative enterprise research proposal (business plan) and presentation. I decided in the end on the first of these two as I realised I had no business of my own to write about. The planning form also included a section in which we could state any areas that we were interested in such as, key designers, artists, theorists, and case studies. I made note of the Punk subculture as a case study as I especially enjoyed looking into them last year with Cath and actually wrote my essay at the time on the group. I also listed graphic designer, Jamie Reid, who was most well-known for his work done in the Punk era, particular his pieces done for British Punk Rock band, the ‘Sex Pistols’ – my thorough favourite out of all his outrageous designs was the album cover he made for the Sex Pistols’ song, ‘God Save the Queen’ which was extremely controversial for its time. I made note of Dick Hebdige as an academic and theorist that I knew wrote about subcultures, particularly in his book, ‘Subcultures: The Meaning of Style’.
After having a meeting with my Constellation tutor, they helped me put my topic into a statement for me to use as a title. I had previously been trying to put it into the form of a question and was, now looking back, making an easy job much more complicated for myself. The statement I decided on was simply: “The relationship between graphic communication and media, and subcultures.” Having linked in my own area of study, graphic communication, into the title, means that I will be able to link my dissertation into my own course work in third year. After handing in our proposal forms, we were assigned individual personal dissertation tutors who were believed to be of most help according to our chosen title. It was of no surprise when I got assigned the subcultural expert herself, Cath Davies. I found that having a personal tutor was great as you knew exactly who you could email or talk to during a mini-breakdown or panic attack over your dissertation planning and having regular meetings with mine, meant that I was able to stay on track and know that I was working in the right direction.
The next step for me was to begin reading – reading absolutely everything! My course was lucky to have workshops set up by our course leaders, with the academic librarian for CSAD, Martha Lee. These workshops motivated me to go away and begin looking for potential useful books for my dissertation proposal. However, after a week or so, I found myself struggling to find books that were useful to me. After sitting around and avoiding the hold-up for another week or so (which was most definitely the wrong thing to do), a peer told me that they’d been to have an individual meeting with Martha who helped them to find plenty of useful books, so I decided to try it out for myself. Sure enough, Martha was great help to me too! She helped me find a few books that were subculture-based, but also showed me how I could narrow down my MetSearches to find more exact results, rather than finding books that maybe said the word ‘subculture’ in them once, on one page out of hundreds, and then didn’t mention the word again. I had my first mini-breakdown at this point (which had been expected to arrive soon-ish), due to thinking I needed to change my topic because there were barely any books which spoke about the relationship between graphics and subcultures, it was more about the textiles world (fashion). Fortunately, my personal tutor did a good job at convincing me otherwise and that it was in fact a good thing that there was not a lot written on the relationship, because I had managed to find a gap to fill in myself. Leaving Cardiff to go home for Easter, I had pages and pages of quotes collected from books and a stack of about ten further books to read at home.
I was struggling to get my head around what a literature review actually was, so instead of getting started on it, I found myself avoiding yet another hold-up (which I seem to be very good at doing) and instead just collecting more and more quotes, some of which I haven’t even used in my finished proposal. I found myself not wanting to start it just because I was scared that I might do it wrong. In the end, I convinced myself to just begin writing the overview at very least, and fortunately I got ‘on a roll’ and realised that it wasn’t that difficult after all. Looking back now, I am so glad that I started it when I did, because I have not had the stress of it being a mad rush last minute – I have just been doing little bit at a time, about 500 to 1000 words a day. Overall, I feel that perhaps the definition of a literature review could have been explained a bit more clearly to us, as I left university still not being 100% sure on how I was writing it. Questions I had included things like, “Am I allowed to put my own personal opinion in it?” and “What person am I writing it in – first person, third person, a mix of both?” It was difficult not being able to get it checked over, however my friends and I were able to peer review and compare each other’s proposals to understand if we were on the right track still.
Final thoughts – “Thank god it’s over… for now.”
Today we had a talk in the library with Martha Lee, the academic librarian for CSAD, who showed us the best way to find and use images correctly within our work.
The Cardiff Metropolitan University library subscribes to and pays for a huge amount and range of databases, including image databases – so we should make the most of using them, especially since it’s our tuition fees that are paying for them.
The image databases can be found on MetSearch under ‘Databases A-Z‘, which takes you to a page listing all of the databases in alphabetical order. From here you can sort the databases by subject, material type and also search for certain words. Martha recommended that rather than sorting it to just ‘Graphic Design‘ in subject, that we only sort it by ‘Multimedia‘ under material type, because this is the best way of gaining the best search results.
Useful image databases for graphic design:
- Bridgeman Education
- Berg Fashion Library
- British Library Flickr Photostream
- John Johnson Collection
- National Gallery
- New York Public Library Image Collections
- Paperbacks Galore
- World Images
- Worth Global Style Network (WGSN)
We were taught how to use search terms. So for example, if you were doing research into Coco Chanel, some search terms to use could be: “French”, “Fashion Designer”, “Perfume”, “Little Black Dress”, “Chanel No’ 5”. A more complex example would be, if you were researching around a hypothesis, question or statement, such as your dissertation title. So for example, if your topic was to “outline and evaluate the origins and development of the Arts and Crafts movement”. The first thing you would need to do in order to create your search terms would be to highlight the key concepts.
“Outline and evaluate the origins and development of the Arts and Crafts movement.”
After you have highlighted your key concepts from your sentence, a good way of expanding your search terms is by putting the words into a table. From your key concepts, you can stretch and create related keywords – there’s nothing wrong with using a thesaurus to help you do this.
Copyright protects the creator or owner of an image, but allows the user to make use of an image via fair dealing. Fair dealing involves asking the owner’s permission or adhering to certain conditions (known as, creative commons). Copyright sets out to:
- Acknowledge ownership of work and stop other people taking credit for it.
- Ensure owners or authors are paid for their work.
- Deter the copying of work for commercial gain or artist recognition.
It is important for designers to understand copyright. While fair dealing permits you to use a small part of other’s works of art without permission, you should still be careful and seek advice or permission if you are unsure.
What does fair dealing involve?
You can copy an image without permission for:
- Non-commercial research.
- Private study.
- Educational or teaching use (i.e. instructional purposes rather than decorative reasons).
- For criticism or review purposes.
- Make multiple copies of an image.
- Share images online – unless: you get permission; it explicitly allows you to; the copyright has expired; or via Creative Commons.
- Use images for commercial gain or in employment.
Google Image Search
Google is a tricky one when it comes to copyright. The easiest and best way to avoid any problems is to use the Google advanced search – under ‘Tools‘, change the ‘Usage rights‘ drop down options to ‘Labeled for reuse‘.
Acknowledge, acknowledge, acknowledge!
You need to cite and reference any and all images that you use in your dissertations. Whether you are using an image for private study or for business, you must always give credit to the owner or author.
This week, our keynotes lecture was with Dr. Martyn Woodward and was about academic forensics, specifically the literature review – this means, what is already known? Who knows it? And what is missing?
What is a literature review?
A literature review is a summary of what an existing scholar knows about a particular topic. It is always based on secondary sources – so, what other people have already written on the subject – a literature review is not about discovering new knowledge and information. Because of this, a literature review is a prelude to further research and a digest of scholarly opinions. A literature review should focus on only the relevant academic literature – popular or non-academic sources can be brought in occasionally to prove or illustrate a point, although the core interest is always on the theories put together by experts within the field.
What does a literature review do?
- It situates the focus of your research within the context of the wider academic community in your field.
- It addresses your critical review of the relevant literature.
- It identifies a gap within the relevant literature that your research will then attempt to address.
- It identifies literature in other fields that may help to ‘fill’ this gap.
What we need to ask ourselves?
- What questions am I asking?
- Why am I asking these questions?
- Has anyone else done anything similar?
- Is my research relevant to any research, practice or theory within my own field?
- What is already known or understood about this topic?
- How might my research add to this understanding, or challenge existing theories and beliefs?
Where does the literature review go?
It will depend on my chosen topic or question, and form of dissertation.
- It can be a chapter at the start that sets the context – for disciplinary work.
- It can be spread throughout several chapters – for interdisciplinary work.
- It can be spread through the entire dissertation – for transdisciplinary work.