Overall Reflection on Field

Overall, the Field module this year for me has been really positive and I’ve really liked it. After not enjoying the module hugely in first year, I was pleasantly surprised at how enjoyable it was this year. I feel that not only have I enjoyed it the projects that I took part in, I have also benefited from both of them.

Both projects, Publish and Significance of Information, have allowed me to push myself and develop my skillset. One of things I enjoyed most, was working as a small group on our Graphic Communication prospectus as it allowed us to create something bigger and better – without the opportunity of working as a team, I am sure that I would not have been able to achieve the outcome that we did if I had worked individually on the project. I was lucky that the other members of my group all had similar ideas of how we wanted the finished prospectus to look and what we wanted the content to be, which meant the we were able to create a consistent prospectus which we were all very happy with.

Although I worked on my own, rather than as a small group, during the Significance of Information project, I was still happy with my outcome. I was able to show my own personality and humour through my final video outcome, which was rewarding. I had a lot of fun with this project and although I treated it seriously and wanted to create a professional looking documentary-style film, I added a spoofy spin which was a really entertaining aspect of both the design and creating stages, and the final outcome. If the opportunity arises again for me to create another video, I would love to.

It was also great to work with students from different courses within Cardiff School of Art & Design as I was able to experience how different subject areas work and it encouraged me to visit other areas of the university to carry out work. For example, I was inspired by some of the work of the Textile students and decided to visit their studio and work area. This certainly affected the direction of my studies, as I went on to take part in a digital stitch workshop in the Textiles area and used it to further my research and development of my branding project in the Subject module.

Both of my Field projects allowed me to advance my skills in two completely different design areas – firstly editorial, and then video making. I am glad that I was able to pick and take part in two projects that were so contrasting, especially as I enjoyed both so thoroughly.

Reflection on Field – Significance of Information

donald-trump

For this project, it was great to have so much freedom – it was completely down to us what topic we chose. I wanted to pick something current and inherent within society. Almost immediately, I knew exactly who I wanted to base this project around – the President of the United States, Donald Trump.

I find the first original idea that pops into my head is often my strongest, as it’s usually the one I’m most passionate about. My next step was to narrow down what I wanted to focus on within my character of Trump – this part was a bit more tricky. I started out with ideas such as a timeline of Trump’s life or his famously outrageous quotes, however, both of these seemed too much of an obvious choice – I wanted to do something new. I determined that the best chance I had of doing this was to simply watch the man himself in action.

Through watching everything from interviews and conferences, to compilations of Trump’s ‘best moments’, I arrived at an idea. Inspired by social-media sites where you often find videos ‘taking the mickey’ of celebrities, such as remixes of particular sayings they have, I decided to compile a range of Trump’s many hand gestures, giving the project the comedic title, How to Speak Donald Trump. As the majority of Trump’s worldwide presence is negative, I didn’t want to acknowledge this negativity in my own work – he is considered a man to be intimidated by and afraid of, so for this exact reason, I believed it was necessary for me to spin this around by adding humour and a light-hearted feel.

After creating a short stop-motion film in our previous project, I felt confident enough to create another, this time individually. I decided against using stop-motion as I felt it wouldn’t work so well this time with my subject. Although I’d decided that I wanted to do a video, I struggled with actually starting it – I didn’t know where to begin. It made sense to me to start at the beginning, however, as I was struggling with this, I jumped into creating the middle of the film instead and then worked outwards by adding more and more as I needed it. This way of working seemed to suit me much better and I was on a roll in no time.

In the end, after several tutorials, I created a nature documentary-style film with a David Attenborough inspired voiceover, treating Trump as the ‘wild animal’ being observed. The whole nature documentary-style is such a contrast with Donald Trump, that this is what makes it work. I drew the whole film together with an extended metaphor, which was that Trump’s hands gestures were his ‘mating calls’ as he tried to gain a ‘relationship’ with America – essentially, he achieved this. Overall, I was extremely happy with my outcome although there are several improvements that I want to make before summative feedback.

I’m glad to have had the opportunity of such a wide brief, because it’s meant that I’ve been able to use and create something that I would not normally be able to. I’ve widened my skill-set and feel that if the opportunity arose again later in my own practice, I would be able to use my new movie-making skills again.

Significance of Info – Final Outcome and Presentation

Today was the deadline day for our field project that I’ve been working on for the past three weeks.

This morning, we each gave presentations showing our research and development of our projects, and then showed our final outcome.

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I opened my presentation with what my topic was: a lesson on ‘How to speak Trump‘ and that overall, it was a study of Donald Trump’s body language. I talked through my initial ideas, such as how they were all Trump-based so I definitely knew that this was the direction I was heading, and why I decided to choose and settle on the particular one that I did. I added that I wanted it to be light-hearted and humorous, especially as Trump is such a scary character within the media at the moment and we very rarely, if ever, have anything positive to say about him – for this reason, my piece was going to be more light-hearted with a humorous spin. Basically, I wanted to make fun of and tease him a bit.

I spoke about how, as part of my research, I watched hundreds of Donald Trump’s speeches in order to analyse his behavioural traits, the way in which he speaks and most importantly his hand gestures and movements, which I chose to focus on. I explained how I wanted to look at whether his hand gestures had changed over time and, if so, how they had changed. To do this, I chose his four most common gestures that I discovered, and then three speeches from different time periods during his journey to presidency, to focus on, and then tallied how many times he used each gesture in each of the speeches and added notes such as when the gestures were used and what the they seemed to mean. I then showed how I had put them into pie charts in order to visually see and compare the changes – I picked out the use of his ‘hands out’ movement as an example as this had the most drastic change over time.

Next I moved onto developing my concepts from my initial ideas and research. I spoke about my first tutorial in David in which I brought a small sample of a video clip I had put together with a short voiceover, in order to roughly demonstrate how I wanted and hoped the final piece would look like. I spoke about how there was something not quite right about the voiceover I had done – it was too monotone and needed more sarcasm in it, however, it was also referred to as sounding like ‘the female David Attenborough’ which was almost so wrong, that it actually worked. I spoke about how from here, I played on this and used it to my advantage, I created my film as if was a nature documentary, like David Attenborough’s Planet Earth, and that Trump was the ‘wild animal’ that we were following.

The final development that I spoke about before showing my outcome was the addition of the part of the film which actually ‘teaches‘ the viewer the lesson on how to speak Trump. When realising that this was missing, I was already at a point of the process where my film was practically complete. Because of this, I did not want to add any more scenes to the film as this could ruin the timing and fabrication of my film, for example how the motions in the video match up with the background music. I stated that my ‘fix’ for this was the use of green screen which could be overlaid instead. I also displayed the templates for the Donald Trump face masks that I made to be used for my green screen model.

Finally, I showed my final outcome of the film:

How to Speak Donald Trump, Amber Lloyd.

Significance of Info – The Green Screen

Now that the masks were created, today I was able to get started on the finishing details of my film, using the green screen.

On looking at my video, I realised that it was missing what the title seemed to suggest – the title, ‘How to speak Donald Trump‘ suggested that it will be a lesson in which the viewer is taught to speak ‘Trump‘ – but where was the lesson in my film? I don’t feel that there was one. Now I have added the green screen effect; it acts as the lesson.

Today, I filmed my model carrying out Trump’s four main gestures wearing the face masks that I made last week. Using Adobe Premiere Pro, I then overlaid my clips over my already existing film, cropped them down, and then used the ultrakey effect to create the green screen, adjusting the pedestal within it.

When putting it all together in Premiere Pro, it was frustratingly fiddly to remove all of the background from behind my model in the clips – this is because the green behind the model was not all perfectly the same shade of green – the unevenness and shadows made it difficult to be neat. Also, some of the film’s quality, primarily when the model is in motion, such as when he is waving his hands and arms around, is not to the greatest of standards – although the video camera that I used was HD quality, it does not seem to have been enough for imitating Donald Trump’s wild and crazy gestures.

I have inserted the green screen clips to show in bursts of approximately 10 seconds, reenacting and copying Trump’s movements in order to teach the audience how to speak Donald Trump. In regards to positioning, I have put them in the bottom left hand corner of the video, similarly to the deaf interpreters that are sometimes seen on screen doing sign language to help those with bad hearing or who are deaf.

Significance of Info – The Masks

After briefly speaking to David today, he reminded me that I still had almost a week to continue to develop and add to my project, so I have decided that rather than leaving the film as it is, I will include my mask idea. As David said, the strength and beauty is in the detail.

As I was worried that by adding more film clips in, it would mess with my timing of the videos and the background music so far, I decided that I could simply green screen over the clips I already had, without ruining the films fabrication. I decided to go ahead with my Donald Trump full-face mask concept, as I felt that this was simple but the most effective.

To make the masks, I used Photoshop to simply edit images of Trump so that it was just his face and then inserted them into InDesign on A3 size paper, then exported to PDF. I measured what size my own face was, so that I could use it as a rough guide to get the masks to the correct size. I printed a grayscale prototype to see if they worked and then from the prototype, I was able to adjust the mask sizes on screen accordingly. I printed the final masks onto thick card so that they would be more sturdy and reliable and then cut them out using a scalpel. The next stop was to create some sticks to hold the masks up to your face with – they needed to be sturdy enough to hold the weight of my Trump masks without flopping over. For the sake of ‘waste not, want not’, I re-used the left over card that I had cut the masks from – I cut several strips which I then stacked together and fasted thoroughly with white masking tape. It did the job perfectly. Rather than tape the sticks to the masks, I have decided to leave them separate for the time being, as I could use a reusable adhesive, such as Blu-tack, to attach them on instead as this would leave them adjustable.

The most tricky part of the mask-making process was the printing of them. Due to the fact that I was printing onto card, rather than normal paper, all of the printer’s settings had to be changed. Because I was feeding in my own printing surface, I had to get inside ‘the printer’s brain’ and tell it not to take the A3 paper out of the tray it normally would, but to instead take it from the manual feed tray which flipped out from the side of the machine. As well as changing the paper tray, I had to also program in to the machine that the paper was in fact card, so I had to tell it the weight of it. It was much more complicated than I had initially expected, but after several trial and error attempts, I managed it with some help from the IT staff. It was useful going through these difficulties actually, because I did not previously know that the printers on the university campus were so extremely versatile – among the paper settings, you could even print onto such things as, tracing paper and recycled paper.

After deciding to use the green screen, I paid a visit to Neil Pedder, who specialises in video editing – he gave me a lesson on the basics of Adobe Premiere Pro, which is the software that I would need to use to edit together green screen film.

Significance of Info – Development and Ideas

Continuing with the making of my ‘How to speak Trump’ film, I have finished all of the analysing of  Trump’s body language, including the voiceovers, added text and background music – it all seems to fitting together really well so far – I have aligned Trump’s movements in the film to match with my voice over. So for example, when talking about Trump’s pointing gesture. At the same time as I say “the point”, Trump carries at the gesture, as I say it – the little details like this, although it’s taking more time to get them right, is what I hope will make the difference and add to the quality of the finished film.

Since my last tutorial with David where it was suggested that I use more irony and sarcasm, I have completely changed the voice over. After studying the way in which David Attenborough speaks, I have tried to use this as inspiration when speaking in the video. In the video, I refer to Donald Trump as, ‘The wild Trump’ as if he is an animal rather than a human being. Also, I treat his body language and gestures as if they are ‘mating calls’, just like a wild animal in a nature documentary. The metaphor that I try and use throughout the film is that, Donald Trump (an animal) is trying to attract and mate with a potential parter, which in his case, is the citizens of America. By the end of the film, he has achieved this – he has become president.

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Currently, all of my film is more or less complete to a standard that I am happy with. However, David suggested that I include some of my own self-filmed parts, I am just unsure of where I would fit them in at the stage the film is at now – I would not want to add them and then it be ruined. To get around this problem, I have decided to save the film in it’s current state and then continue to add the extra bits, so that I can then decided whether it has improved and bettered the film or whether it was best how it was previously.

I have had several ideas that I could use for my own firsthand videos, including:

Face masks

These would be printed onto card and then either put onto sticks to be held in front of a face, or an elastic string could be attached instead.

Facial features mask

These would be photographs of Donald Trump, but zoomed in close to specific facial features – primarily his mouth or eyes due to him being known to contort these features most commonly. Rather than being printed them onto physical paper like the full-face masks, I could keep them digital, on a small screen such as a phone instead. The screen should then be able to be held up in front of somebody’s face and it will look as if Trump’s feature has replaced their own. I made sure to trial and error it before hand from home, but hope to test it out properly in the photograph suite in University, perhaps with the green screen.

Paper hands

Another idea was that I could somehow make a form of paper or cardboard hands, which I could then wear like gloves. They would be in the form of Trump’s gestures. However, these may not be needed if I use the face mask ideas.

Significance of Info – Development

Today I had an individual tutorial with David to show him what progress I have made with my concepts up to this point.

Since our last tutorial, I had mocked up a rough, short film using iMovie, just to act as a taster of what the finished film could look like. The film is meant to a documentary-style study of Donald Trump’s body language.

After watching  lots and lots of Trump’s speeches, I chose three speeches from three different time periods of his journey to presidency to analyse more thoroughly. The three speeches that I analysed were:

  • Donald Trump’s Presidential Announcement: 16th June 2015
  • Donald Trump Rally in Fountain Hills, Arizona: 19th March 2016
  • Donald Trump’s Inaugural Address: 20th January 2017

Using four of what I had found to be Trump’s most commonly used gestures, I tallied how many times each gesture was carried out throughout each speech. The four gestures are:

  • ‘OK sign’/’Air pinch’
  • ‘The point’
  • ‘The stop and slice’
  • ‘Open palms’/’The Wall’

I put the tallies into a bar charts, but due to the speeches being different lengths, meaning obviously, the longer speech would have more gestures, it would make it unfair if I were to use a pure straight count. Because of this, I converted the data into pie charts which arrange the data by percentage instead, making it fair. From the charts, I was able to tell which gestures were his most popular, but more interestingly, I was able to analyse the change of his gesture-use over the years.

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I have written out a full script of what I want to be said in the voiceover for the ‘Trump documentary’. I was struggling to start the film image-wise, so rather than start from the introduction, I went straight into creating the middle sections of it and then would work outwards – this way has seemed to work well so far because I can now see what the film will more or less look like and where I need to go from here. From looking at so many of Trump’s speeches, I have taken hundreds of screenshots of his gestures, so I started by simply inserting them in order, each for about 0.3 seconds each – when the film is played, it flashes through the images, much like a stop motion. Over the flashing images, I added a few pieces of short voiceover from my script, just to test out my voice and see how it sounded.


I showed several of my peers my short rough film so far, and they thought it was hilarious how posh I sounded in my voiceover, like a weather girl – the voiceover sounded nothing like my normal speaking voice and I think they were finding it hard to believe that it was actually me at all. The only worry they had was that I sounded almost too posh; all emotion from my voice seemed to have disappeared.

My tutorial with David:

When I showed David the video in my tutorial, although the video itself was nothing much yet, he said the documentary style worked well. Like my peers, he thought the voiceover that I had done was very amusing. He pointed out that I sounded like a female David Attenborough doing a wild life documentary. On saying this, he then went on to say, that this was actually what made it great – it just needs a little more sarcasm in the voice to make it work.

After my tutorial with David, I am going to continue with the documentary-style film on ‘How to speak Trump’, however I am going to really milk the David Attenborough wildlife idea, as I feel that this would work as fantastic irony and could create a strong comedic effect for the film – which is what it needs at this point, considering my aim was to make the theme light-hearted and humorous.

Significance of Info – Initial Ideas and Visuals

After our first group tutorials on Tuesday, in which we showed our initial concepts and research, today we presented and got critiqued on our first visuals of our ideas.

Earlier on in the week, I had several ideas, all with a running theme of one character: Donald Trump. It was clear from the beginning that ‘he’ was the direction that I wanted to take this project in. Some of my initial ideas included:

  • Trump vs. Obama (in which I would look at what both did, each in their first week of presidency)
  • Trump’s first week of Presidency (full timeline included)
  • Trump’s Quotes (focusing on the most outrageous)
  • A Trump Timeline (from his DOB to presidency)

Since my first tutorial on Tuesday, although I am sticking with Mr Donald Trump, my idea has evolved.


It was great seeing all sorts of different ideas and visuals from my peers today – it was really interesting seeing everybody’s visual concepts. I felt that mine was very different and at first was quite unsure because of this. However, after presenting my Donald Trump idea and visuals so far – I felt much more confident with where I was going to head next, as I received plenty of positive feedback with several further ideas and developments suggested as well.

There was a lot of very serious issues being looked at among the group, such as woman’s rights, protesting, black killings, environmental issues, etc, and although mine is a rather serious issue as well – being Donald Trump – I have taken a more light-hearted, humorous approach towards the topic. I have decided on taking this approach because I feel that the issue is already actually rather frightening, especially now that Trump is officially the President of the United States, so instead of adding to this already existing worldwide fear, I decided to take a more cheery and comical direction with the matter.

I have named my project: How to speak Donald Trump.

I have looked at and really analysed Trump’s behavioural traits, his speech and hugely, his hand gestures and movements. I have had to watch endless amounts of his speeches, particularly his presidential rally that he gave across the whole of the US, and which ran throughout both 2015 and 2016 – and although I am sick of hearing his ‘stupid’ raving about how he’s going to “make America great again”, I am beginning to understand just how important his traits and habits are and have been for him throughout his campaign – the way in which he speaks and acts so energetically, excitably and enthusiastically, manages to really tap a vein of nationalism among Americans.

Although I really still don’t like the guy and I really can’t believe that I’m actually saying this, but after all of my speech analysing, it’s hard not to be almost inspired by him, or his aura at very least. I can just about see and understand how and why all of his American supporters have been brainwashed by him.

Pictograms and Iconography

Today we had a day with Stephen McCarthy, who is a designer for the Government Digital Service, during which we did a workshop with him on pictograms.

What are pictograms?

Pictograms, also known as icons (iconography) are essentially images that are used to represent data. They are a simplified representation of a concept, with a flat design. Pictograms are used for all sorts of things: they are most commonly used as tools for signalling, direction and instruction – to get or help you to do something. They are also sometimes used as tools for education, storytelling and social critique or reporting. They are often found in an array of places, such as on toilet doors, airports and train stations, for just a few examples. Pictograms are the nearest thing that we have to a system of universal understanding.

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There are three main ways in which we read imagery, known as the semiotic levels:

  • Syntactic
  • Semantic – this is literal identification, so seeing exactly what is in front of you
  • Pragmatic – this implies interpretation, it is improvised information

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For example, the semantic of this pictogram above would be, a car dreaming of a key. However, the pragmatic version would be, car rental, which is of course what the pictogram actually is.

How to construct your own pictogram and what to consider when doing so:

  • The art and importance of implication – “What you leave out is just as important as what you put in. The viewer will fill in the gaps.” Nigel Holmes (Infographics designer)
  • Ask yourself what are the criterial aspects of the thing that you are representing
  • Develop consistent systems and patterns – re-use elements
  • There is a lot of power in subtleties
  • Stereotypes can be effective
  • Cultural context can have a big influence

The biggest problem with images is that, they are ambiguous; they can be interpreted in many different ways so may not have a single clear, obvious meaning. Due to this ambiguity, images often need text to clearly  define their intended meaning. There are two main ways off adding text to do this:

  • Relay – this is extension of meaning: the words work with the image in telling the story
  • Anchorage – this is when the meaning is defined: the words along with the image, tell you how to interpret it

Sometimes, instead of using textual elements, using a second image to aid and elaborate on understanding works just as well.


As well as working as part of the Government Digital Service design team, Stephen also works on his own projects under Loft 27 Design. His work here includes writing narratives, for example newspaper articles or stories, through the use of only pictograms. Some of the stories he has previously covered includes the London riots, prostitution, sex trafficking, child abuse and other important issues and news headings. His aim is to show what took place, visually, rather than textually.

Today, we were given the opportunity and task by Stephen to do this for ourselves. We were split into pairs and each given a recent news article to create a visual narrative from – the aim was that, by the end of the task, somebody else who hadn’t known previously what you’re article was about, would be able to understand from the visuals, the story and goings-on from just your pictograms.

The article that my partner, Emily, and I were given was headlined, “Tall car salesman banned after driving with head sticking out of roof.” We began by splitting up the article into approximately eight key sections and decided to make one pictogram for each section that we’d highlighted. Below is our process and then our final story, told through pictograms:

The story behind our pictograms, image by image:

  1. There was a really tall man who was almost 7 ft tall
  2. When sat in a convertible, his head was above the windshield
  3. Side-shot of him driving fast with hair flying in wind
  4. It was considered dangerous driving
  5. A police car with sirens
  6. The policeman stops him
  7. The policeman thought that he was standing up in the car while driving
  8. He was taken to court in front of a judge
  9. He was given a driving ban

The most difficult but interesting thing that we found ourselves having to do, was to portray what was a complicated and wordy description, in the simple and clear visual format of a single icon. It was the details which were the most tricky. For example, in the article, the character was a male car salesman. On wondering how we could attempt to represent this, we decided that a simple male icon would do the job well enough – we made him tall instead as this was the key detail, rather than his profession. We used a policeman and a judge in our pictogram story too – so we added details such as the hat and strap across chest for the policeman, and the curly wig and hammer for the judge. Another example is that, in the article, it made reference to the salesman’s “blonde locks drifting through the breeze” which we thought was quite an amusing detail to include, but we did not want the icon to look like a woman and we also didn’t want to add too much colour – in the end, although we decided against yellow, we added short-ish locks to the character’s head.

When looking at our spreads of pictograms, our peers were able to look at and understand exactly what our story was, through the use of our pictograms. Overall, I really enjoyed our workshop today with Stephen McCarthy – I have never really looked at in detail or used pictograms before, so it was great to learn and practice using something so simple like the icons we looked at and made today, to so clearly tell a complicated story. It was great being able to tell a story completely through visuals, with no added text whatsoever.

Beautiful Systems – The Review

Today was the deadline for our Beautiful Systems project that we have been working on in groups for the past week.

After continuing our stop motion film that we started on Friday, we finished it and had it ready to hand in this morning at 10am. Although the process was quite slow, we still got it completed faster than I had initially expected that we would – my group mate and I worked really well together as a pair and got the job done in good time and to a great standard of quality.

The process involved us moving the laces bit by bit and taking a snapshot after every small movement in order to create the frames which then create the film. The procedure was fiddly at the best of times – it was often a real struggle to get the laces to stay where you wanted them to stay. The pie chart was probably the most difficult piece to create, but from then onwards, we seemed to have gotten the hang of it and we were away on a roll. Apart from laces, the only other objects we used were ripped scraps of white paper in which we wrote the shoe style, the school title and the data percentages on – we felt that these were needed in order to add clarity to our finished piece, enabling viewers to see exactly what each segment of the charts were percentage-wise. We hand wrote them onto torn pieces of paper because we wanted to keep the film fun, informal and playful, with a homemade feel to the whole thing. The final thing we had to add to the film once we had exported it was to add music. We used AfterEffects to do this, and chose a song that we felt would fit perfectly: These Boots Are Made For Walkin’, Nancy Sinatra – the song is fun and lively and of course, it’s about shoes.

Below is the final outcome of our stop motion animation:

The feedback that we got from both David and the class was very positive – they loved how ambitious we had been with the small project, particularly as we were the only other group that had created an animation/film; all of the other outcomes were purely posters. They approved of our use of shoelaces, commenting on the fact that the viewer knows an understands straight away what the data is about: shoes. Finally, we were praised on how colourful and fun the piece was overall. The only minor point that David pointed out was that in the pie chart, the “boots” and the “heel” segments are perhaps too similar in size and don’t show a clear enough percentage difference – fortunately we had the hand written labels which prevents them from becoming completely undistinguishable – but of course, if we were to do the project again, we could certainly make this more clear by repositioning the green lace to make the “heel” segment smaller.

Personally, I was really proud of our final outcome that we handed in today – I really enjoyed the process of making the stop motion and was really pleased with how the finished film turned out. I think the brightness and contrasts of the colours really add to the piece, making the movement even more energetic and fun. Overall, I really feel like we have created an imaginative, adventurous and creative information design – it’s really effective.